Lesson 8 – Fricative /f/, /v,/ /θ/, /ð/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/ and affricates /ʧ/, /ʤ/

In this lesson we will get back to learning the consonants.


Review the American English phonetic chart:


And review the British English vowels:



You know how your hands get hot when you rub them together?

That’s caused by friction.You can also create friction in your mouth by making the air have a hard time getting out.

Fricatives are consonants that let air through with a lot of friction. They don’t make your mouth hot, but they do produce a special sound.

The /f/ and /v/ sounds

Both of these are labiodental sounds. That means you make them by touching the top teeth to the bottom lip and blowing air through. /f/ is voiceless and /v/ is voiced, but the mouth position is the same.


  • few, view
  • fan, van
  • feel, veal
  • fear, veer
  • life, live
  • leaf, leave
  • half, have

Some people have trouble with /f/ and /p/.

  • coffee, copy
  • fast, past
  • defend, depend
  • fee, pee
  • fool, pool
  • fleas, please
  • phrase, praise
  • wife, wipe
  • laugh, lap


  • five free fries
  • very vicious
  • give it to Fred
  • a passion for fashion

Tongue twister

Flat flying fish fly faster than flat flying fleas.

The /θ/ and /ð/ sounds

Put a piece of paper in front of your mouth and try to make it blow in the wind coming from /θ/.



  • think
  • three
  • thin
  • Jonathan
  • author
  • earth
  • bath
  • math


  • they’re
  • then
  • the
  • father
  • other
  • bathe
  • breathe


  • thigh, thy
  • with, with
  • breath, breathe
  • bath, bathe

Don’t say /s/

  • sinking, thinking
  • sin, thin
  • sank, thank
  • bass, bath
  • mouse, mouth

Don’t say /t/

  • tin, thin
  • tinker, thinker
  • tank, thank
  • mat, math
  • tree, three

Don’t say /d/

  • den, then
  • dirty, thirty
  • eater, either

Don’t say /z/ or /dz/

  • ease her, either
  • rise, rides, writhe


There was an English ship sailing in the ocean far from home. All of a sudden a storm came and the ship began sink. The captain made an emergency call on the radio and said, “Hello? Is anyone there? We’re sinking! We’re sinking!” Another ship answered, “Yes, hello. We are here. What are you sinking about?”



The /s/ and /z/ sounds



  • see, Z
  • sip, zip
  • sue, zoo
  • sap, zap
  • hiss, his
  • piece, peas
  • ice, eyes
  • force, fours

Don’t mix up /z/ and /dz/

  • cars, cards
  • rays, raids
  • please, pleads
  • nose, nodes

In English /dz/ never comes at the beginning of words.

  • zero
  • zoo
  • zipper


  • his is zero
  • buzzing bees
  • Sally sat sifting seashells on the seashore.
  • Zip A Dee Doo Dah



The /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ sounds



  • shoot
  • she
  • wished
  • fisherman
  • ash
  • wash
  • consternation
  • shark


  • usually
  • pleasure
  • beige
  • fusion
  • vision
  • Asia


  • How’s your vision?
  • She usually wishes for more.
  • my pleasure
  • I live in Baton Rouge.




Affricates are a mixture between plosives and fricatives. There are two of them in English: /ʧ/ and /ʤ/.

The /ʧ/ and /ʤ/ sounds



  • chairs
  • choose
  • cheetah
  • each of
  • church
  • which
  • tree
  • train
  • true


  • jump
  • Jennifer
  • agile
  • adjust
  • edge
  • fridge
  • dry
  • dredge
  • drip


  • rich, ridge
  • etch, edge


  • hodge podge
  • Jack and Jill
  • check out that


Practice double sounds with all of the consonants that we have done so far. Try to get at least 70% correct with at least double pairs.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *